In an effort to coordinate, manage and integrate the reform programme, Government established institutional arrangement for reform implementation in Nigeria. These are made up of the National Council on Reforms, the Steering Committee on Reforms and the Bureau of Public Service Reforms.
The National Council on Reforms has the President of Nigeria as Chairman, and it is the apex of the institutional machinery for reform implementation and coordination. The Steering Committee on Reforms, among others, is saddled with the functions of providing guidance and technical leadership in reform design and implementation; initiating action on reforms at different levels, and; ensuring the monitoring and evaluation of reform implementation for impact and effectiveness.
The Bureau of Public of Service Reforms serves as the secretariat to both the National Council on Reforms and the Steering Committee on Reforms, and in that capacity it serves as the coordinating secretariat for all the sectoral reforms of government.
More importantly, the Bureau of Public Service Reforms coordinate, monitor and evaluate reform implementation activities, conduct research on implementation efforts and presents best practices and; provide advisory and technical support services to change management teams and working groups.
As part of the institutional arrangement for the coordination and focus of reform implementation in Nigeria, the reforms are being driven at different fronts as follows:
Budget at the Budget Office of the Federation;
Public Procurement by the Bureau of Public Procurement;
Accounts and Audits at the Offices of the Accountant General of the Federation and Auditor General of the Federation;
Tax reforms at the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS);
Information technology and e-Government at the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITAD);
Ports and Customs reforms at the Nigerian Customs Service;
Anti-Corruption at Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC);
Economic and Financial Crimes at the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), and;
Public Service Reforms at the Bureau of Public Service Reforms (BPSR).
In an effort to combat corruption, the Government also introduced two institutions to combat corruption in the domestic business environment.
These institutions were the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the, Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offenses Commission (ICPC).
These institutions have been combating cases of corrupt practices such as Internet fraud and corruption in public offices.
Poor public expenditure management in Nigeria has greatly hampered the quality of government capital projects, resulting in poor service delivery.
In order to improve transparency at all levels of government, but particularly at the States and Local Government levels, a monthly publication of Federal, States and Local Government shares of revenue from the country’s Federation account was introduced in 2004.
The publication provides details of revenue allocation to all the States of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) as well as the774 Local Governments.
The publication has increased transparency, particularly of sub-national finances, and opened up dialogue on public revenues and expenditures of all tiers of government.
In addition to combating corruption in the conduct of government business, electronic payment was introduced in 2009 for payment of contracts and services awarded by government.
The overall aim is geared towards instilling transparency and ensure that payments effected by government to contractors and other business transactions are easily tracked electronically without any difficulties.
It is also to reduce to the barest minimum, physical contact between accounts officials and contractors with regard to payments, thereby minimizing unethical behaviour associated with physical payments.
Government introduced the Due Process mechanism in public contracts. The Due Process mechanism has promoted an open tenders process with competitive bidding for government contracts. As a means of ensuring competitive costing of contracts, a database of international prices was developed to serve as a guide during the bidding process.
The government also publishes a public tender journal periodically as a means of reducing patronage in the award of contracts. In addition, certification of completed government projects is also required before final payments are made.
The procurement reform, to a great extent has brought about some measure of sanity, transparency and competition in contract award. As a means of strengthening public procurement system in the country, Government took steps to institutionalize transparency and competitive bidding in tendering contract award and payment through Public Procurement Act and the establishment of the Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP).
The BPP, among others, is saddled with the responsibility of formulating the general policies and guidelines relating to public sector procurement for the approval of government.